A technical guide to tDCS, and related non-invasive brain stimulation tools | Clinical Neurophysiology

Many of the leading tDCS researchers contribute to this Open Access article on clinical application of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques. Read it online, or download the pdf. (HatTip to Reddit user gi67)

  1. 1. Introduction
  2. 2. Transcranial direct current stimulation
    1. 2.1. Selecting and preparing electrodes and contact medium
    2. 2.2. Selecting and preparing electrode placement
    3. 2.3. Selecting a stimulation protocol
    4. 2.4. Use of blinding and sham
    5. 2.5. Safety versus tolerability
    6. 2.6. Considerations for transcutaneous spinal DC stimulation (tsDCS)
    7. 2.7. Considerations for cerebellar tDCS
      1. 2.7.1. Targeting the whole cerebellum
      2. 2.7.2. Targeting the cerebellar hemispheres
    8. 2.8. Selecting a stimulator
  3. 3. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)
    1. 3.1. Selecting tACS electrode placement
    2. 3.2. Selecting experimental design
    3. 3.3. Selecting stimulation parameters
    4. 3.4. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS)
  4. 4. Monitoring physiological effects of tES
    1. 4.1. Monitoring physiological effects of tES with TMS
      1. 4.1.1. Monitoring of tES-induced motor cortex plasticity
    2. 4.2. Monitoring physiological effects of tES with electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs)
      1. 4.2.1. Selecting an approach
      2. 4.2.2. Integrating tES and EEG electrodes
      3. 4.2.3. Recording EEG during tES
    3. 4.3. Monitoring physiological effects of tES with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)
      1. 4.3.1. Integration of tDCS with MR
      2. 4.3.2. Considerations for concurrent MR acquisition
      3. 4.3.3. Other considerations for tDCS integrated with MR
  5. 5. Monitoring functional effects of tES
    1. 5.1. Monitoring functional effects of tES in healthy subjects
    2. 5.2. Monitoring functional effects of tES in patients
  6. 6. tDCS/tACS/tRNS in animal preparations
    1. 6.1. DC-, AC-, RN-induced membrane polarization
    2. 6.2. What can we learn from in vitro experiments?
  7. 7. tDCS and models of electric current through the brain
  8. 8. tES ethics
    1. 8.1. Education and training
    2. 8.2. Settings and procedures
    3. 8.3. Patient/subject selection
    4. 8.4. Patient/subject education and informed consent
  9. 9. Concluding remarks
  10. References

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