I will focus on the key unknowns in brain stimulation research:
1. The unknown effects of stimulation;
2. The unknown side-effects of stimulation;
3. The lack of clear dosing guidelines;
4. The lack of translational studies from adults to children.
I will set out these “known unknowns” in translating our knowledge about TMS and tDCS effects to clinical pediatric applications, and touch on the practical and ethical barriers to their widespread usage.