Slides From NIMH-sponsored tES Workshop Held September 29th and 30th at NIH

An email from Michelle Pearson at the NIH (because I had signed up for the online version of the workshop) alerted me today to a trove of TES (Transcranial Electric Stimulation) info being made available to us. Presenter slides (in PDF form) from the workshop were available for download. Because the download process was pretty wonky, involving many clicks and declined logins to Dropbox I thought to make them available here as well.

1-lisanby-introductory-remarks Sarah Hollingsworth Lisanby, M.D., NIH
2-rumsey-introduction Judy Rumsey, Ph.D.
3-wassermann-historical-overview Eric Wassermann, M.D., NINDS
4-parra-tdcs-mechanisms Lucas Parra, co-founder of Soterix Medial Inc. @lcparra1
5-frohlich-tacs-mechanisms @FlavioFrohlich, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
6-clark-combining-imaging-and-stimulation Vincent P. Clark, PhD Mind Research Network
7-woods-tes-technical-aspects Adam J. Woods, PhD @adamjwoods
8-richardson-blinding Jessica D. Richardson, Ph.D.
9-kappenman-reproducibility Emily S. Kappenman
10-bikson-computational-modeling-design Marom Bikson, CCNY @MaromBikson
11-deng-anatomical-variability-efields Zhi-De Deng, Ph.D., NIH
12-dmochowski-targeted-stimulation-sources Jacek P. Dmochowski, CCNY
13-loo-depression-trials Colleen Loo, Black Dog Institute
14-brunoni-neuropsychiatry-large-trials André R. Brunoni, @abrunoni
15-cohen-motor-learning Leonardo G. Cohen, M.D. NINDS
16-edwards-augmentation-neurorehabilitation Dylan J. Edwards PhD
17-lim-ongoing-trials Kelvin O. Lim, M.D.
18-frohlich-tacs-psychiatry-trials @FrohlichLab
19-charvet_remote-tdcs Leigh Charvet PhD, NYU

Early Torpedo Fish TES Researcher. From the Wassermann Historical Overview slides

Early Torpedo Fish TES Researcher. From the Wassermann Historical Overview slides

Sleep Spindles tACS and Memory Consolidation | Frohlich Lab

For the first time, UNC School of Medicine scientists report using transcranial alternating current stimulation, or tACS, to target a specific kind of brain activity during sleep and strengthen memory in healthy people.


Flavio Frohlich, PhD

Full Story: No dream: electric brain stimulation during sleep can boost memory
Paper: Feedback-Controlled Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation Reveals a Functional Role of Sleep Spindles in Motor Memory Consolidation

A technical guide to tDCS, and related non-invasive brain stimulation tools | Clinical Neurophysiology

Many of the leading tDCS researchers contribute to this Open Access article on clinical application of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques. Read it online, or download the pdf. (HatTip to Reddit user gi67)

  1. 1. Introduction
  2. 2. Transcranial direct current stimulation
    1. 2.1. Selecting and preparing electrodes and contact medium
    2. 2.2. Selecting and preparing electrode placement
    3. 2.3. Selecting a stimulation protocol
    4. 2.4. Use of blinding and sham
    5. 2.5. Safety versus tolerability
    6. 2.6. Considerations for transcutaneous spinal DC stimulation (tsDCS)
    7. 2.7. Considerations for cerebellar tDCS
      1. 2.7.1. Targeting the whole cerebellum
      2. 2.7.2. Targeting the cerebellar hemispheres
    8. 2.8. Selecting a stimulator
  3. 3. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)
    1. 3.1. Selecting tACS electrode placement
    2. 3.2. Selecting experimental design
    3. 3.3. Selecting stimulation parameters
    4. 3.4. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS)
  4. 4. Monitoring physiological effects of tES
    1. 4.1. Monitoring physiological effects of tES with TMS
      1. 4.1.1. Monitoring of tES-induced motor cortex plasticity
    2. 4.2. Monitoring physiological effects of tES with electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs)
      1. 4.2.1. Selecting an approach
      2. 4.2.2. Integrating tES and EEG electrodes
      3. 4.2.3. Recording EEG during tES
    3. 4.3. Monitoring physiological effects of tES with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)
      1. 4.3.1. Integration of tDCS with MR
      2. 4.3.2. Considerations for concurrent MR acquisition
      3. 4.3.3. Other considerations for tDCS integrated with MR
  5. 5. Monitoring functional effects of tES
    1. 5.1. Monitoring functional effects of tES in healthy subjects
    2. 5.2. Monitoring functional effects of tES in patients
  6. 6. tDCS/tACS/tRNS in animal preparations
    1. 6.1. DC-, AC-, RN-induced membrane polarization
    2. 6.2. What can we learn from in vitro experiments?
  7. 7. tDCS and models of electric current through the brain
  8. 8. tES ethics
    1. 8.1. Education and training
    2. 8.2. Settings and procedures
    3. 8.3. Patient/subject selection
    4. 8.4. Patient/subject education and informed consent
  9. 9. Concluding remarks
  10. References

BrainKit 1.0 released

Nathan Whitmore continues to push the envelope on DIY brain stimulation. Somewhat above my limited capabilities, we can assume that as the project evolves, the build will get simpler.

BrainKit 1.0 released
To download BrainKit, click here to go to its GitHub page. You can also see an earlier post which lays out some of the concepts behind BrainKit here.

Planning BrainKit started about a year ago when I was thinking about the question “now that putting together the hardware and software to make a relatively inexpensive device to stimulate the brain is basically a solved problem, what is the next major obstacle to the use of noninvasive brain stimulation?” The answer was (and still is) figuring out where in the brain to stimulate to achieve some desired effect.

BrainKit was inspired by this idea, a brain stimulator which also is capable of monitoring brain activity and using statistics to understand the neural correlates of mental states and design stimulation montages more intelligently. For instance, BrainKit can find brain regions that show different patterns of activity in fatigued and alert states—and then allow you to stimulate these regions to see if it affects alertness.

Full article: http://quicktotheratcave.tumblr.com/post/124541990103/brainkit-1-0-released

An Evening with the Consciousness Hackers | The New Yorker

For the evening’s first demonstration, Siegel helped attach electrodes to the temples of Adam Goyer, a volunteer test subject, then cued Eugene Sinkevich, an electrical engineer, to start the current. “We are at the frontier,” Siegel said, looking out at the crowd as no more than two milliamps ran through Goyer’s head. “We’ll be able to tell our kids that we used to hook up arbitrary electrical signals to our brain.”Goyer sat still for several minutes, flinching only slightly. Then it was over. How did he feel?“First, let me say I’m really nervous about putting electricity through my brain. The first wave felt like a tingling on my forehead, and I guess I’m smarter afterward, sure. Then the second wave of tACS [transcranial alternating-current stimulation, a type of stimulation in which the flow of the charge varies] I kinda felt woozy, not in a bad way, but kind of like I’m on a boat. Then the third one, I definitely had some flickering, some eye flickering: in the outside of your eyes it’s like a flash, like a strobe.”

Source: An Evening with the Consciousness Hackers – The New Yorker

Functional role of frontal alpha oscillations in creativity

Following up on the recent Flavio Frohlich paper. Some details here in the abstract about how the boost in creativity was achieved.

Frohlich-tACS

Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent electroencephalography (EEG) data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8–12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a functional role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10 Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40 Hz-tACS was used instead of 10 Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal 40 Hz stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation.

There’s a paywall to the full paper, but Kurzweil.net has the details.
Alpha-rhythm brain stimulation shown to boost creativity

Scientists Use Brain Stimulation to Boost Creativity

Flavio Frohlich photo Donn Young

Sounds like some kind of tACS. Will try to follow-up with more info.
See Also: Your Brain on Electricity

For the Cortex study, Frohlich’s team enrolled 20 healthy adults. Researchers placed electrodes on each side of each participant’s frontal scalp and a third electrode toward the back of the scalp. This way, the 10-Hertz alpha oscillation stimulation for each side of the cortex would be in unison. This is a key difference in Frohlich’s method as compared to other brain stimulation techniques.
Each participant underwent two sessions. During one session, researchers used a 10-Hertz sham stimulation for just five minutes. Participants felt a little tingle at the start of the five minutes. For the next 25 minutes, each participant continued to take the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and commonly used test of creativity. In one task, each participant was shown a small fraction of an illustration – sometimes just a bent line on a piece of paper. Participants used the line to complete an illustration, and they wrote a title when they finished.
In the other session each participant underwent the same protocol, except they were stimulated at 10 Hertz for the entire 30 minutes while doing the Torrance test. The tingling sensation only occurred at the start of the stimulation, ensuring that each participant did not know which session was the control session.
Because rating creativity or scoring a test can involve subjectivity, Frohlich sent each participant’s work to the company that created the test. “We didn’t even tell the company what we were doing,” Frohlich said. “We just asked them to score the tests.
”Then Frohlich’s team compared each participant’s creativity score for each session. He found that during the 30-minute stimulation sessions, participants scored an average 7.4 percentage points higher than they did during the control sessions.

via Scientists Use Brain Stimulation to Boost Creativity.
link to paper: (paywall) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010945215001033

FOC.US — tACS, tRNS, tPCS, Sham, Double Blind and Voltage Control

[Update 3/17/15 Foc.us just announced version 1.0 of their new Mac software:
foc.us+ OS X software is now available
http://update.foc.us/softwares/foc.us-dock-sw-mac-1.0.stable.dmg ]

I’ve copied the entire post from the Foc.us blog. This is a significant development. tACS, transcanial alternating current stimulation, has been discussed in the DIY community as a hopeful, eventual, capability that would evolve out of a microprocessor-based DIY project. That means software and a level of complexity that most DIYers aren’t prepared to take on. But not only tACS, tRNS – transcranial random noise stimulation, tPCS – transcranial pulsed current stimulation (something I know nothing about), and a Sham setting… well, Foc.us has definitely set the bar here. This is a $199 device! (Plus headset, sponges and shipping $298) [CORRECTED]. Windows-only software at present though Mac ‘coming soon’). This will have a serious impact on any of the DIY commercial tDCS devices.

That said, this is an announcement from the manufacturer. I expect the Reddit tDCS crowd will be exploring these claims over the next few months. This is exciting news and opens the door to some serious citizen science.

focusV2homepage

tACS, tRNS, tPCS, Sham, Double Blind and Voltage Control – a look at the new features in foc.us firmware update 1.7

The latest firmware update for the foc.us v2 developer edition is now available for download. It’s quite a big release in terms of new features so here’s a quick run down of whats new.

New modes – tACS, tRNS, tPCS

In addition to tDCS (constant current) you can now create different energy waveforms – shaped like waves, pulses or noise.

tACS – transcranial alternating current stimulation

tACS mode allows you to create a sine wave current where you can set the maximum current, current offset and frequency. It is even possible for the polarity of the electrodes to switch – flipping a cathode to an anode (and vice versa) up to 300 times per second.

Full explanation of tACS settings can be found here.

tPCS – transcranial pulsed current stimulation

tPCS mode enables you to create pulses of current. You can control the frequency, offset and also the duty cycle of the waveform. Full explanation of tPCS settings can be found here.

tRNS – trancranial random noise stimulation

tRNS mode can create random waveforms where either the frequency, the current or both take random values between the min and max values set. tRNS settings are here.

Sham – Off, On or Double Blind

Sham mode is used by researchers to check for placebo effect in studies. If you set to On, the current will begin, but then turn off (after a user configurable duration). But if you want to test yourself, knowing sham was on would defeat the purpose. But if you set sham to “double blind” then you may or may not receive a sham session.

Voltage Control

During a neuromodulation session the resistances involved vary and so the voltage changes to maintain the target current. It is now possible to set a limit on the voltage you want to use in all modes. If you find you are sensitive to the voltage you can use this setting to find a comfortable setup.

Wave, Pulse and Noise programs

These are pretty advanced settings so there are also three new programs with default values you can try.

Summary

These new settings give you even greater control over your neuro-stimulation options. And with double blind you check if its working for you.

foc.us – take charge™

via FOC.US — tACS, tRNS, tPCS, Sham, Double Blind and Voltage….

How the brain ignores distractions | News from Brown

As our awareness of brainwave activity mapped to behavior evolves, we’re sure to see the development of tACS for treatment and enhancement. I am betting that Neurolectrics, with their lab-level NIB/EEG device, Starstim, have been collecting valuable data in this area.

Jones and Kerr are now working with Dr. Ben Greenberg, professor of psychiatry and human behavior, to test whether they can use noninvasive, transcranial alternating current electrical stimulation (tACS) to take advantage of this process. They will test whether they can use the technology to manipulate alpha and beta waves between parts of the brain such as the somatosensory cortex and the rIFC to suppress attention to, or even the detection of, pain.

In a similar vein, research results show that mindfulness meditation, also possibly via the mechanism of throttling attention via control of alpha rhythms, can help people ignore depressive thoughts. Jones and Kerr are also interested to study whether explicit manipulation of alpha and beta waves between a different part of the cortex and the rIFC could provide much the same relief.

The Brown Institute for Brain Science recently outfitted a new lab on campus with the needed hardware for tACS and other brain stimulation research. BIBS and the Norman Prince Neurosciences Institute are funding the collaboration with Greenberg.

via How the brain ignores distractions | News from Brown.

The effects of theta transcranial alternating current stimulation – PubMed

Especially in light of the recent Aldis Sipolins study which found no transfer (improvement to fluid intelligence) with his tDCS/exercise protocol, I think it’s smart to keep our eye on tACS. Although far less researched, I’ve noticed consistent reports of positive effects. Google the article title and you can find a few links to full pdfs.

The results showed that active theta tACS affected spectral power in theta and alpha frequency bands. In addition, active theta tACS improved performance on tests of fluid intelligence. This influence was more pronounced in the group of participants that received stimulation to the left parietal area than in the group of participants that received stimulation to the left frontal area. Left parietal tACS increased performance on the difficult test items of both tests (RAPM and PF&C) whereas left frontal tACS increased performance only on the easy test items of one test (RAPM). The observed behavioral tACS influences were also accompanied by changes in neuroelectric activity. The behavioral and neuroelectric data tentatively support the P-FIT neurobiological model of intelligence.

via The effects of theta transcranial alternating current stimulation (… – PubMed – NCBI.

Scientists find switch for people to control their dreams – Vox

HatTip to Jay who is working on a tDCS/lucid dreaming project of his own.
tACS is transcranial alternating current, significantly more complex, from what I gather than tDCS. But perhaps a DIY tACS device set to 40 Hz specifically won’t be out of the question for DIYers. As someone who spent months (unsuccessfully) doing lucid dreaming exercises I certainly would welcome the opportunity to experience lucid dreaming.

The new dream study (paywall), which was published May 11 in Nature Neuroscience, used a far less invasive method: electrodes temporarily placed at strategic locations on the scalp. The research involved 24 volunteers with no history of lucid dreaming. The subjects went to sleep and eventually dreamed. Then, researchers turned on a 30-second-long electrical signal and then woke them up and asked them about their experiences. It turned out that a 40 Hz stimulation induced lucid dreams 77 percent of the time.

You can’t objectively measure a dream, though. So how did researchers know that the subjects weren’t just making it up? For one, the electrical stimulation was gentle enough that people couldn’t feel it, and some people were in a control group that had electrodes that never got turned on. Also, the study was double-blind: neither the volunteers nor the people who interviewed them were told who had what kind of stimulation. So it does seem that the effects were real.

via Scientists find switch for people to control their dreams – Vox.

tDSC Papers of Note April 2013

Regional personalized electrodes to select transcranial current stimulation target (pdf)
…with the present work we developed a procedure to properly shape the stimulating
electrode.
Regional-personalized-electrodes-to-select-transcranial-current-stimulation-target

(The familiar looking square electrodes were the reference electrodes.)
Tags: electrodes, tACS

The Sertraline vs Electrical Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical StudyResults From a Factorial, Randomized, Controlled Trial (pdf)
At the main end point, there was a significant difference in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores when comparing the combined treatment group (sertraline/active tDCS) vs sertraline only, tDCS only, and placebo/sham tDCS… There were 7 episodes of treatment-emergent mania or hypomania, 5 occurring in the combined treatment group.
Tags: depression

Noninvasive transcranial direct current stimulation over the left prefrontal cortex facilitates cognitive flexibility in tool use (pdf)
The results support the hypothesis that certain tasks may benefit from a state of diminished cognitive control.
And a related news story discussing the same paper.
Brain hacking: Electrifying your creative side
Each person was shown pictures of everyday objects and asked to come up with a new uses for them.
The group which received the TDCS muting the left prefrontal cortex was better in coming up with unusual uses than the others — and did it faster.
Tags: creativity, Sharon Thompson-Schill, cathodal stimulation,

 Orchestrating neuronal networks: sustained after-effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation depend upon brain states (pdf)
Long lasting after-effects foster the role of tACS as a tool for non-invasive brain stimulation and demonstrate the potential for therapeutic application to reestablish the balance of altered brain oscillations.
Tags: tACS

Different Current Intensities of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Do Not Differentially Modulate Motor Cortex Plasticity (pdf)
targeting M1 …10 minutes of anodal tDCS at 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 mA
These results suggest that the aftereffect of anodal tDCS on facilitating cortical excitability is due to the modulation of synaptic mechanisms associated with long-term potentiation and is not influenced by different tDCS intensities.
Tags: M1, dosage

Transcranial direct-current stimulation increases extracellular dopamine levels in the rat striatum (pdf)
Following the application of cathodal, but not anodal, tDCS for 10 min, extracellular dopamine levels increased for more than 400 min in the striatum. There were no significant changes in extracellular serotonin levels.
Tags: dopamine

Spark of Genius: A new technology promises to supercharge your brain with electricity. Is it too good to be true?
Surprisingly good pop-sci overview of where we’re at with tDCS. Chock full of relevant links.

Using computational models in tDCS research and clinical trials (pdf)
Hypothesis: Appropriately applied computational models are pivotal for rational tDCS dose selection.
Tags: Comptational modeling, Marom Bikson,

Boosting brain functions: Improving executive functions with behavioral training, neurostimulation, and neurofeedback  (pdf)
This review provides a synopsis of two lines of research, investigating the enhancement of capabilities in executive functioning: a) computerized behavioral trainings, and b) approaches for direct neuromodulation (neurofeedback and transcranial electrostimulation).
Tags: cognitive enhancement

Focal Modulation of the Primary Motor Cortex in Fibromyalgia Using 4×1-Ring High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS): Immediate and Delayed Analgesic Effects of Cathodal and Anodal Stimulation (pdf)
We found that both active stimulation conditions led to significant reduction in overall perceived pain as compared to sham.
Tags: Fibromyalgia, HD-tDCS, Marom Bikson, pain

February 2013 tDCS Papers of Interest

If there’s no link to a pdf, it means the full paper is behind a paywall. If you find a public link to the full paper, please send it along and I’ll update the post. Did I miss anything 😉
Bold: Paper title, linked to Abstract
(pdf): Direct pdf download where available
Italic: ‘Takeaway’ snippet from abstract.
(Bracketed): My thoughts FWIW
Tags:

Transcranial direct current stimulation increases resting state interhemispheric connectivity.
the tDCS group showed increased DLPFC connectivity to the right hemisphere and decreased DLPFC connectivity to the brain regions around the stimulation site in the left hemisphere. (Lends more credence to the idea of increasing positive effects of tDCS by simultaneously damping down (cathodal) and ramping up (anodal) neuronal activity.)
Tags: theory, learning, enhancement

Transcranial direct current stimulation for treatment of refractory childhood focal epilepsy.
A single session of cathodal tDCS improves epileptic EEG abnormalities for 48 h and is well-tolerated in children.
Tags: epilepsy, children

Brain stimulation modulates the autonomic nervous system, rating of perceived exertion and performance during maximal exercise.
…indicating that the brain plays a crucial role in the exercise performance regulation.
Tags: sports medicine

Evolution of Premotor Cortical Excitability after Cathodal Inhibition of the Primary Motor Cortex: A Sham-Controlled Serial Navigated TMS Study (pdf)
Cathodal inhibition of M1 excitability leads to a compensatory increase of ipsilateral PMC (premotor cortical regions) excitability. (Cathodal tDCS used as a tool to facilitate an experiment)
Tags: theory,

Rethinking Clinical Trials of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Participant and Assessor Blinding Is Inadequate at Intensities of 2mA (pdf) (See also: A big hole in the control? Transcranial direct current stimulation blinding on trial)
Our results suggest that blinding in studies using tDCS at intensities of 2 mA is inadequate. Positive results from such studies should be interpreted with caution.
Tags: theory, sham, blinding,

The effects of cross-hemispheric dorsolateral prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on task switching
Task switching, defined as the ability to flexibly switch between tasks in the face of goal shifting, is a central mechanism in cognitive control. …Our findings confirm the notion that involvement of the PFC on task switching depends critically on laterality, implying the existence of different roles for the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere in task switching.
Tags: task switching, theory

The role of timing in the induction of neuromodulation in perceptual learning by transcranial electric stimulation
tRNS (transcranial random noise stimulation) facilitated task performance only when it was applied during task execution, whereas anodal tDCS induced a larger facilitation if it was applied before task execution. (This study showed tDCS to be more effective when applied prior to training! (i.e. ‘offline’)
Tags: tRNS, offliine, online, training, enhancement, perceptual learning

Modulation of verbal fluency networks by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in Parkinson’s disease
…left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) tDCS increased performance on the phonemic fluency task
Tags: Parkinson’s, verbal fluency

Transcranial Electrical Currents to Probe EEG Brain Rhythms and Memory Consolidation during Sleep in Humans (2011) (pdf)
…results demonstrate the suitability of oscillating-tDCS as a tool to analyze functions of endogenous EEG rhythms and underlying endogenous electric fields as well as the interactions between EEG rhythms of different frequencies. (Way over my head at this point but trying to understand it, as Lisa Marshall is frequently mentioned in discussions around tDCS and memory. I’m also trying to build an understanding of EEG.)
Tags: memory consolidation, EEG, theory

(pdf) Random Noise Stimulation Improves Neuroplasticity in Perceptual Learning (2011)
Our results confirmed the efficacy of hf-tRNS over the visual cortex in improving behavioral performance and showed its superiority in comparison to other TES. (tRNS transcranial random noise stimulation, has been showing up more often in relation to studies focused on learning and cognition.)
Tags: tRNS, perceptual learning, neural plasticity,

Focal Modulation of the Primary Motor Cortex in Fibromyalgia Using 4×1-Ring High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS): Immediate and Delayed Analgesic Effects of Cathodal and Anodal Stimulation
4×1-ring HD-tDCS, a novel noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of more focal and targeted stimulation, provides significant reduction in overall perceived pain in fibromyalgia patients..
Tags: HD-tDCS, Fibromyalgia, pain health

Transcranial direct current stimulation’s effect on novice versus experienced learning (2011)
TDCS was significantly more effective in enhancing test performance when applied in novice learners than in experienced learners.
Tags: learning, threat detection, anode F8,

Evaluation of sham transcranial direct current stimulation for randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials.
The tDCS sham condition investigated here may be suitable for placebo-controlled trials keeping subjects blind to treatment conditions. (The protocol for sham tDCS is necessarily evolving.)
Tags: sham,

Tremor Suppression by Rhythmic Transcranial Current Stimulation
With this technique we can achieve almost 50% average reduction in resting tremor amplitude and in so doing form the basis of a closed-loop tremor-suppression therapy that could be extended to other oscillopathies. (tACS transcranial alternating current)
Tags: Parkinsons, tremor, tACS

Is Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation Effective in Modulating Brain Oscillations? (pdf)
Therefore, the present study does not provide significant evidence for tACS reliably inducing direct modulations of brain oscillations that can influence performance in a visual task.
Tags: tACS, posterior parietal cortex, visual perception

Neuromodulation for Brain Disorders: Challenges and Opportunities (pdf)
This article reviews the state-of-the-art of neuromodulation for brain disorders and discusses the challenges and opportunities available for clinicians and researchers interested in advancing neuromodulation therapies. (Excellent overview of where we’re at with various forms of brain stimulation)
Tags: Neuromodulation, brain stimulation, tDCS, DBS (Deep Brain Stimulation), ICS (intracranial cortical stimulation), TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)

Improved proper name recall in aging after electrical stimulation of the anterior temporal lobes (2011) (pdf)
The task was to look at pictures of famous faces or landmarks and verbally recall the associated proper name. Our results show a numerical improvement in face naming after left or right ATL stimulation, but a statistically significant effect only after left-lateralized stimulation.
Tags: name recall, anterior temporal lobes, aging,

Transcranial brain stimulation (not sure this link will work for you pdf)
This book reviews recent advances made in the field of brain stimulation techniques. Moreover NIBS techniques exert their effects on neuronal state through different mechanisms at cellular and functional level.
Tags: NIBS (non-invasive brains stimulation), research overview,

Naming facilitation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation. (2010)
…anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC improves naming performance, speeding up verbal reaction times after the end of the stimulation, whereas cathodal stimulation had no effect.
Tags: learning, left DLPFC,

Consolidation of Human Motor Cortical Neuroplasticity by D-Cycloserine (2004) (pdf)
While anodal tDCS enhances motor cortical excitability, cathodal tDCS diminishes it. Both effects seem to be NMDA receptor dependent. D-CYC selectively potentiated the duration of motor cortical excitability enhancements induced by anodal tDCS.(Again, way over my head, but NMDA receptors comes up frequently in the context of tDCS and neurotransmitters.)
Tags: NMDA receptors, D-Cycloserine, learning, enhancement

Interactions between transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and pharmacological interventions in the Major Depressive Episode: Findings from a naturalistic study. (See also: Electrical Brain Stimulation Plus Drug Fights Depression)
…To investigate the interactions between tDCS and drug therapy …tDCS over the DLPFC acutely improved depressive symptoms.
Tags: depression, Zoloft

Physiological and modeling evidence for focal transcranial electrical brain stimulation in humans: A basis for high-definition tDCS.
We provide direct evidence in humans that TES with a 4 × 1-Ring configuration can activate motor cortex and that current does not substantially spread outside the stimulation area.
Tags: HD-tDCS, electrodes, M1

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Reduces Postsurgical Opioid Consumption in Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA).
…tDCS may be able to reduce post-TKA opioid requirements.
Tags: pain,

Modulating lexical and semantic processing by transcranial direct current stimulation.…(tDCS), which is applied over Wernicke’s area and its right homologue, to influence lexical decisions and semantic priming…
Results showed impaired lexical processing under right anodal/left cathodal stimulation in comparison with sham and left anodal/right cathodal stimulation.